types of coffee beans

Different Types of Coffee Beans and Levels of Roasting

Coffee is one of the most preferred drinks globally, and if you are an addict, you must know what coffee beans you should use in your coffee. Along with the type of coffee beans, one must also learn about the roasting levels and what you should prefer. In this article, we discuss everything you should know about types of coffee beans and how long should you roast them. Whether you are new to brewing or an espresso master, this will be a handy piece of information for the next time you buy coffee.

Also read: 10 Best Coffee Face Masks for Glowing Skin at Home.

Every day, the coffee you drink goes through a lengthy procedure before reaching your cup, and selecting the right coffee beans requires some expertise. Let’s have a look at the journey of coffee beans from seed to cup before we get into choosing the best one:

  • Planting
  • Harvesting the cherries
  • Processing the cherries
  • Drying the beans
  • Tasting the coffee
  • Roasting the coffee
  • Grinding the coffee
  • Brewing the coffee

Types of Coffee Beans for a Perfect Cup of Coffee

There are many options for selecting the right coffee beans, but your coffee will not be up to par if you make a wrong pick. We’ve all been there, glancing at a variety of coffee beans and then being disappointed when we take the first sip of our brew. Investing in high-quality beans will allow you to get the most out of your coffee. When it comes to picking the right beans, a few things to bear in mind. 

After all, it’s that perfect cup that gets us going in the morning.

In this article, we will go through the types of coffee beans available, the difference in roasts, and how freshness has a part to play for that perfect cup of your morning deliciousness.

The first and most crucial step in selecting the right coffee bean for our coffee is to gain a basic understanding of coffee beans. Coffee beans are classified into four groups:

  • Arabica
  • Robusta
  • Liberica
  • Excelsa

Liberica and Excelsa are less well-known varieties. While Liberica is becoming more challenging to come by in the coffee world, Excelsa has been reclassified as a Liberica coffee family member, including Liberica and Excelsa, none of which are commonly used. 

Let’s take a closer look at two of the most popular coffee beans.

Arabica Coffee Beans

Arabica is the most delicate coffee bean, accounting for more than 60% of all coffee output worldwide. They have a sweeter, gentler taste and a multi-layered complexity of flavours and fragrances. Their acidity is higher, with a winey flavour characteristic of coffee with strong acidity.

Arabica coffee comes in a variety of subspecies, including:

  • Bourbon
  • Pacarmara
  • Maragogype
  • Typical and others.

Arabica coffee beans are found in the majority of grocery stores, markets, coffee shops, and cafés.

Robusta Coffee Beans

Robusta is the world’s second-most-produced coffee after Arabica. They have a silky texture with undertones of chocolate in the flavour. When compared to Arabica beans, Robusta beans have more caffeine. This is ideal for those who enjoy their coffee with milk and sugar because it retains its flavour and tastes divine when combined.

Robusta beans are available in many types:

In the wild, Robusta comes in a variety of shapes and sizes. The hybrid strains of this coffee variety are often difficult to distinguish, although the two primary types are:

  • Erecta, or upright forms
  • Nganda or spreading forms.

Robusta, unlike Arabica, is difficult to find in stores or marketplaces, although a blend of Arabica and Robusta is available. 

Everything you need to know about Roasting Coffee Beans

Coffee is a matter of personal taste, and selecting the right coffee bean is just as vital as having the right equipment and training for the recipe for great coffee. However, roasting knowledge is just as crucial as it plays a crucial role in the world of coffee.

Here are some prominent factors to consider when selecting the proper coffee beans roast for your perfect cup of caffeine.

best types of coffee beans

Levels of Roasting

Following a thorough examination of the roasting date and packing, the next critical step is to assess the degree of roasting of the coffee beans. 

Without question, the bean itself is crucial, but roasting also plays a role in selecting the correct coffee bean, as the roasting process imparts much of the coffee’s aroma and flavour. Coffee roasts are divided into four categories. Every roast has its distinct aroma, taste, and look. 

Though the most popular roast level is Medium, often known as ‘City Roast,’ which is seen to be the most acceptable roast level. Let’s take a closer look at each of the four roast kinds.

  • Light coffee roast
  • Medium coffee roast
  • Medium-dark coffee roast
  • Dark coffee roast

1. Light Coffee Roast

The light roast, also known as the ‘Half City Roast,’ is roasted for the shortest span, with an internal temperature of 356°F – 401°F. As previously stated, the longer a bean is roasted, the more caffeine and acidity it releases; hence light roasts have the maximum caffeine and acidity content.

Light brown roasts enhance their original flavours because they don’t have the oils on their surface. They taste best when paired with a citrus or lemon flavour, which some people enjoy.

2. Medium Coffee Roast

With medium brown, the medium roasts are considered to have balanced flavours. They’re roasted at a temperature of 410°F to 428°F on the inside. Because the roasting procedure is a step higher than light roasts, caffeine and acidity are reduced.

The bulk of coffee drinkers consumes these roasts in large quantities. The ‘City Roasts’ are another name for these. Most Americans prefer the medium roast because it tastes best with a hint of cocoa.

3. Medium-Dark Coffee Roast

As the name implies, the medium-dark roasts are dark brown and roasted at a temperature of 437°F to 446°F, as the name suggests. They’re commonly referred to as ‘Full City Roasts’ offer a richer, fuller flavour with more body and less acidity. Because they show the oils on the bean’s surface, they contain less caffeine than light and medium roasts. When served with milk or cream, they are delightful.

4. Dark Coffee Roast

The dark roasts, which have an internal roasting temperature of 464°F-482°F, have visible oils on the beans, which help them taste sweeter when the beans caramelise. They are dark chocolate and are also known as the ‘Espresso Roast.’ The majority of individuals like dark roast coffee first thing in the morning. Dark roast coffee is best served as Espresso, either as a shot or as a cup of black coffee.

Date of Rotation

We all buy our coffee from supermarkets, but do we ever think to look at the date it was roasted? We usually look at the expiration date, but here’s the thing:


Yes! You’ve read that right! Coffee has no expiration date because its chemistry changes due to air, moisture, and heat exposure. It becomes a very perishable product that matures and turns stale. Only if consumed within three weeks of roasting can one taste the greatest brew with all of its aromatic oils and sugars.

Most supermarkets and online businesses would not provide us with the roasting date because the coffee is roasted weeks before it is packaged and shipped. Customers are drawn to buy coffee because of the brand name and the fancy packaging design, but if you’re an authentic coffee connoisseur, you’ll recognise the taste of coffee that’s been roasted for more than three weeks.

How do I know if Coffee is Stale?

You can determine the exact roast of your coffee by following these simple steps:

  • If you like your coffee with milk or cream, you’ll notice that it has an astringent, starchy flavour to it, and the aroma will be lacking.
  • If you prefer Espresso, your coffee will not generate the thick golden cream that you desire on top of your coffee.

Where to Buy Coffee Beans?

If you contact your local roaster, they will be able to provide you with every detail about your coffee bean. Please inquire about the bean you choose, its age, how it is stored, and so forth. This will be an excellent method for selecting the best coffee bean. 

Similarly, if you’re buying it from an online retailer, choose a reputable brand. Examine all of the information they provide, as most coffee shops now include the roasting date on their bags.

Though it may be difficult to prepare each cup of coffee in the traditional manner, you may always purchase whole beans, roast them according to your preference, and grind them for pure freshness and perfection.

There’s a great phrase that defines the “THREE” rule coffee:

  • Ground coffee that remains fresh for THREE minutes after grinding.
  • Roasted beans which can last for THREE weeks after roasting.
  • Green beans can rule the shelf for up to THREE years after packaging.

Frequently Asked Questions [Faqs]

What are coffee beans types?

There are mainly four types of coffee beans; Arabica, Robusta, Liberica, and Excelsa.

Which is the best type of coffee bean?

Robusta and Arabica are two of the popular coffee beans used in everyday life; both of these are perfect for making your coffee day from Espresso to Cappuccino. 

Which is the best type of coffee roasting?

Coffee roasting is a personal choice depending on taste and purpose. Some like it lightly roasted, while some love to drink dark roasted coffee.

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Conclusion – Types of Coffee Beans

There are four types of coffee beans globally; however, the two mainly used coffee beans are Arabica and Robusta. Liberica and Excelsa are not preferred mostly. Once you choose your type of coffee beans, you also need to ensure how they are packed and the roasting level. There are four levels of roasting: light roast, medium roast, medium-dark roast, and dark roast. Depending on your choice, you need to choose your level of coffee roasting.

What types of coffee beans along with roasting do you prefer? Do let us know in the comment section.

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